Dirjen Dukcapil Usul Capres, Caleg dan Cakada Wajib Isi Formulir Tak Pernah Punya Paspor Asing

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Nusa Dua – Dirjen Dukcapil Kementerian Dalam Negeri Prof. Dr. Zudan Arif Fakrulloh, SH, MH berpandangan bahwa saat ini WNI yang mempunyai Paspor negara lain tidak otomatis dinyatakan kehilangan kewarganegaraann, karena masih memerlukan tindakan atau keputusan pemerintahan yang memastikan kapan kewarganegaraannya hilang. Hal ini perlu dokumen berupa keputusan dari pemerintah untuk kepastian hukum.

Dirjen Zudan mengatakan, dalam administrasi pemerintahan apa yang yang dikatakan batal demi hukum itu tidak ada yang terjadi secara otomatis. Hal itu merujuk saat dirinya menangani kasus Djoko Tjandra (DT) dan Bupati Sabu Raijua, Orient Riwu Kore (ORK) yang memiliki kewarganegaraan ganda dengan memiliki dua paspor.

“Djoko Candra memiliki Paspor Papua Nugini, Orient Kore punya paspor Amerika Serikat. Tapi keduanya masih juga berstatus WNI dalam Sistem Adminduk karena yang bersangkutan tidak pernah melapor, tidak pernah melepaskan kewarganegaraan, sehingga pemerintah tidak tahu bila yang bersangkutan memiliki 2 paspor,” kata Zudan saat berbicara dalam kegiatan Simposium Nasional Hukum Tata Negara di The Westin, Nusa Dua, Bali, Rabu (18/5/2022).

Padahal, dalam Pasal 23 UU Kewarganegaraan dikatakan salah satu penyebab hilangnya kewarganegaraan adalah memiliki paspor negara lain.

“Perumusan di Pasal 23 itu sebagai perumusan norma sanksi administrasi.

Sehingga, tambah Zudan, ketika memenuhi syarat melakukan perbuatan yang telah ditetapkan, maka orang tersebut dapat diberi sanksi kehilangan kewarganegaraannya. Nah, disinilah tindakan pemerintahan yang bersifat konkrit, individual dan final diperlukan. Esensinya adalah diperlukan adanya sebuah keputusan dari pemerintah.

“Sehingga, saya berpendapat dari dua kasus tersebut, yang dalam waktu yang bersamaan keduanya memiliki paspor tapi tidak otomatis kehilangan kewarganegaraannya dan masih berstatus WNI. Ini disebabkan belum ada tindakan administrasi pemerintah,” ulasnya.

Pakar Hukum Administrasi Negara ini juga menjelaskan, pengalamannya di Biro Hukum Kemendagri tahun 2008 hingga 2014, ada asas hukum yang mengatakan “Lex superiori derogat legi inferiori”. Artinya, peraturan yang lebih tinggi mengalahkan peraturan yang lebih rendah.

“Tapi ketika perda-perda di daerah tidak dibatalkan, tetap saja perda yang lebih rendah dari UU dan bertentangan dengan UU, tetap dijalankan dan tidak batal. APBD sah, Perda Perizinan jalan,” papar Dirjen Zudan.

Jadi menurut pandangannya, sepanjang belum ada tindakan administrasi pemerintahan maka Pasal 23 itu belum masuk pada perbuatan hukum konkret.

“Jadi kita belum tahu, ORK itu kapan kehilangan kewarganegaraan RI-nya, DT kapan kehilangan kewarganegaraannya,” katanya.

Dalam kesempatan tersebut, Zudan mengusulkan di tahun 2024 dalam Pemilihan Presiden, Legislatif dan Kepala Daerah, Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) agar membuat formulir setiap orang yang mencalonkan sebagai peserta Pilkada, Pileg atau Pilpres perlu menyatakan tidak pernah memiliki paspor negara lain.

Sebab selama ini, dirinya menilai dalam hal kewarganegaraan Indonesia menganut Stelselnya Pasif. Kalau tidak ditanya, para pasangan calon presiden (Capres) atau calon anggota legislatif DPR/DPD/DPRD (Caleg) serta calon kepala daerah (Cakada) tidak pernah mendeklarasikan mereka pernah punya paspor negara lain atau tidak.

“Jadi ada satu Formulir yang dipersiapkan oleh KPU, sehingga calon atau pasangan itu mau men-declare hal tersebut,” tegasnya.

Hadir dalam kesempatan tersebut, anggota KPU RI Muhammad Afifuddin, Dirjen AHU Kemenkumham Cahyo Radian Muzhar, Ketua Dewan Pembina Asosiasi Pengajar Hukum Tata Negara-Hukum Aadministrasi Negara Prof Dr Satya Arinanto, Dewan Pembina Perludem Titi Anggreini sebagai Moderator.


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