Fakta yang Perlu Anda Ketahui Seputar Angin Duduk (Angina)

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KESBANG.COM, JAKARTA – Angin duduk dikenal dapat menyebabkan kematian. Katanya, orang yang sedang ‘kerokan’ dapat terkena angin duduk dan menyebabkan meninggal dunia. Namun, ini bisa saja hanyalah mitos. Untuk mengetahui apa itu sebenarnya angin duduk, sebaiknya simak penjelasan berikut ini seperti diulas lama halo sehat.com.

Apa itu angin duduk?

Angin duduk atau dalam bahasa medis disebut dengan angina, adalah nyeri pada dada yang disebabkan karena otot jantung tidak menerima cukup oksigen dari aliran darah. Anda kemudian merasa dada Anda seperti ditekan atau diremas. Rasa nyeri ini timbul bukan hanya di dada, tetapi juga di bahu, lengan, leher, atau punggung.

Jadi, angin duduk bukan disebabkan oleh angin yang masuk ke tubuh Anda saat ‘kerokan’, seperti yang mungkin selama ini Anda pikirkan.

Apa saja penyebab angin duduk?

Yang juga perlu Anda ketahui adalah angin duduk bukanlah merupakan sebuah penyakit. Ini merupakan sebuah gejala dari penyakit yang berkaitan dengan jantung. Ada beberapa faktor yang dapat menyebabkan angina berdasarkan jenisnya, yaitu:

1. Angina stabil (angina pektoris)

Angina jenis ini disebabkan oleh penyakit jantung koroner (PJK). PJK dapat terjadi jika plak terbentuk di dinding pembuluh darah, sehingga pembuluh darah menyempit dan mengakibatkan tersumbatnya aliran darah ke jantung. Hal ini kemudian menyebabkan pasokan oksigen ke jantung terganggu.

Angina stabil dapat terjadi saat otot jantung membutuhkan lebih banyak darah, seperti saat beraktivitas fisik, stres emosional, pada suhu sangat panas atau sangat dingin, makan berlebihan, dan merokok.

2. Angina tidak stabil

Atau, kadang disebut sindrom koroner akut disebabkan oleh berkurangnya aliran darah ke otot jantung karena terbentuknya plak pada pembuluh darah. Plak ini bisa pecah dan menyebabkan luka pada pembuluh darah, sehingga darah bisa menggumpal dan menghambat aliran darah. Angina jenis ini biasa terjadi saat Anda beristirahat, sedang tidur atau sedikit beraktivitas, dan datang secara tiba-tiba.

3. Angina varian (angina Prinzmetal)

Angina jenis ini terjadi ketika arteri koroner yang memasok darah dan oksigen ke jantung Anda mengalami penyempitan sementara karena spasme. Angina jenis ini dapat terjadi kapan saja, termasuk saat Anda beristirahat, biasanya saat tengah malam atau dini hari.

4. Angina mikrovaskular

Angina jenis ini disebabkan oleh penyakit mikrovaskuler koroner. Ini merupakan penyakit jantung yang memengaruhi pembuluh darah arteri koroner terkecil di hati dan lebih cenderung terjadi pada wanita dibandingkan pria. Penyakit mikrovaskuler koroner juga disebut sindroma jantung X dan PJK non-obstruktif.

Angina karena penyakit ini dapat terjadi saat Anda aktif secara fisik atau mengalami gangguan emosional. Gejala ini biasanya mereda setelah beberapa menit.

Siapa yang berisiko mengalami angin duduk?

Jika Anda berisiko mengalami berbagai penyakit jantung, maka Anda juga berisiko terkena angin duduk. Beberapa faktor risiko utama dari penyakit jantung atau angin duduk adalah:

  • Kadar kolesterol jahat tinggi
  • Tekanan darah tinggi
  • Diabetes
  • Sindrom metabolik
  • Kelebihan berat badan atau obesitas
  • Anda tidak aktif beraktivitas
  • Anda mempunyai kebiasaan makan atau diet tidak sehat
  • Riwayat penyakit jantung pada keluarga
  • Usia lebih tua, pria di atas usia 45 tahun atau wanita di atas usia 55 tahun memiliki risiko lebih tinggi
  • Merokok

Bagaimana cara mencegah angin duduk?

Anda bisa mencegah angin duduk dengan cara mencegah penyakit jantung. Dan, jika Anda sudah mempunyai penyakit jantung, Anda masih bisa melakukan hal-hal yang bisa membantu menunda penyempitan pembuluh darah. Beberapa hal yang bisa Anda lakukan adalah:

  • Mengontrol tekanan darah
  • Mengurangi atau membatasi makanan yang mengandung kolesterol tinggi
  • Ubah kebiasaan makan Anda menjadi kebiasaan makan sehat, mengonsumsi makanan dengan gizi seimbang
  • Aktif secara fisik
  • Mencapai atau mempertahankan berat badan yang sehat. Jika Anda kelebihan berat badan, sebaiknya lakukan penurunan berat badan dengan cara sehat.
  • Mengontrol kadar gula darah, jika Anda mempunyai diabetes
  • Berhenti merokok dan kurangi konsumsi alkohol

Jika Anda mempunyai penyakit jantung, beberapa obat juga dapat Anda gunakan untuk mencegah angina. Sebaiknya konsultasikan dengan dokter Anda obat apa yang harus Anda ambil. (Zul)

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