Mengenal Diet Keto yang Sedang Tren

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KESBANG.COM, JAKARTA – Tren diet datang silih berganti, kali ini sedang populer istilah diet ketogenik atau diet keto yang mengurangi asupan karbohidrat, tapi menggantinya dengan asupan lemak lebih banyak.

Asal muasal?
Spesialis gizi klinik Dr. Samuel Oetoro mengatakan diet keto awalnya diterapkan untuk penderita epilepsi. Karbohidrat dikurangi bagi penderita epilepsi untuk mengurangi hantaran listrik di otak yang menyebabkan kejang-kejang.
Ketika karbohidrat dikurangi, hantaran listrik di otak menurun dan serangan kejang-kejang pun semakin jarang terjadi.
Pembatasan karbohidrat ini mulai dilirik jadi cara melangsingkan tubuh setelah terlihat ada penurunan berat badan pada orang-orang yang melakukan diet keto.
Mengapa diet keto menurunkan berat badan?
Ada banyak faktor, salah satunya karena tubuh merasa kenyang lebih lama.
Mengurangi kalori tanpa merasa kelaparan adalah salah satu yang membuat orang tertarik mengikuti diet keto.
Asupan protein yang tinggi membuat keinginan makan turun, ini membuat orang-orang yang melakukan diet keto memang tidak terlalu bernafsu makan.
Karena tidak ada karbohidrat, air banyak dikeluarkan dari dalam tubuh. Ini yang membuat berat badan mudah turun saat seseorang menerapkan diet keto.
Lemak yang tepat?
Berdasarkan rekomendasi, total lemak yang jadi asupan dalam diet keto harus terdiri dari 80 persen asam lemak tak jenuh ganda, sisanya adalah lemak jenuh.
Asam lemah tak jenuh terbagi dua, yakni asam lemak tak jenuh tunggal (Monounsaturated Fatty Acid/ MUFA) dan asam lemak tak jenuh ganda (Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid/ PUFA).
Contoh MUFA  adalah minyak zaitun, kacang tanah, kedelai, dagung unggas, kacang kenari, butter kacang tanah dan alpukat.
Sedangkan asam lemak tak jenuh ganda alias PUFA bisa didapat dari ikan laut, minyak ikan dan minyak kedelai.
Sayangnya, apa yang diterapkan di Indonesia belum tentu tepat. Banyak di antara pelaku diet keto keliru memilih lemak, mereka justru lebih banyak menyantap daging-daging berlemak yang termasuk dalam lemak jenuh.
Durasi diet?
Berdasarkan penelitian, diet keto sebaiknya hanya dilakukan selama tiga hingga enam bulan. Di bawah tiga bulan adalah waktu yang paling ideal. Terlalu lama berdiet keto justru akan membuat asam urat dan kolesterol jahat semakin tinggi.
Siapa yang boleh berdiet keto?
Orang obesitas yang sehat boleh melakukan diet keto.
Sebaliknya, mereka yang punya berbagai penyakit seperti asam urat atau kolesterol tinggi tidak direkomendasikan menerapkan diet karena hanya akan membuat tingkat asam urat dan kolesterol jahat dalam tubuh semakin tinggi.
Namun, Samuel tidak merekomendasikan diet keto diterapkan oleh para pekerja yang dituntut untuk selalu berpikir. Sebab, butuh karbohidrat untuk membuat sel-sel otak bekerja dengan baik.
“Tanpa karbohidrat, jadi susah mikir, lemot,” tutup dia. (Ant)

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