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Nestapa Minyak Goreng: Lawan Kebijakan Pro Oligarki!

-Opini-697 views

Marwan Batubara, Direktur Eksekutif Indonesian Resources Study (IRESS). Pada 16 Maret 2022 pemerintah kembali merubah kebijakan minyak sawit mentah (CPO) dan olein melalui Permendag No.11/2022. Peraturan ini mencabut ketentuan HET Permendag No.6/2022 yang berisi ketentuan harga eceran tertinggi (HET) minyak goreng (migor) dalam tiga kelompok, yakni HET migor kemasan premium Rp 14.000 per liter, migor kemasan sederhana Rp 13.500 per liter, dan migor curah Rp 11.500 per liter.

Dengan Permendag No.11/2022, maka HET hanya berlaku untuk migor curah, dan naik menjadi Rp14.000 per liter atau Rp15.500 per kg. Sedangkan migor kemasan sederhana dan premium, harganya berfluktuasi sesuai mekanisme pasar. Prinsipnya di luar migor curah harganya dilepas sesuai harga pasar internasional. Kebijakan ini jelas melanggar konstitusi dan sangat nyata memihak kepada oligarki, dan wajib dilawan!

Sebelum membahas lebih lanjut, perlu diungkap berbagai kegagalan pemerintah mengelola industri migor dan sawit, terutama dalam menetapkan kebijakan yang adil, kredibel dan berkelanjutan. Dengan terbitnya Permendag No.11/2022, maka hanya dalam waktu dua bulan sejak Januari 2022, pemerintah telah menerbitkan enam kebijakan yang berubah-ubah.

Pemerintah mengaku harus menerbitkan peraturan baru karena peraturan lama belum dapat mengatasi masalah kelangkaan, antrian panjang, dll. Pemerintah biasa mengungkap berbagai alasan guna menjustifikasi terbitnya peraturan baru seperti misalnya terjadinya penimbunan, penyeludupan, pengalihan penggunaan, pengoplosan, dll. Terakhir dikampanyekan tentang maraknya mafia yang membuat peraturan lama harus dicabut, diganti Permendag No.11/2022.

Semua peraturan diterbitkan secara coba-coba, tanpa kajian komprehensif, dan tanpa rasa bersalah. Namun hal ini sekaligus menunjukkan kegagalan pemerintah mengelola hajat hidup rakyat dan menegakkan kedaulatan negara sesuai Pancasila dan UUD 1945. Kegagalan ini terjadi terutama karena yang menjadi motif utama di balik perubahan kebijakan bukanlah kepentingan masyarakat banyak, tetapi kepentingan oligarki dan optimasi penerimaan pajak guna menambal defisit APBN yang sangat dalam.

Prahara migor yang berlangsung sejak Oktober 2021 membuka peluang terbitnya aturan harga migor sesuai mekanisme pasar yang tampaknya sudah lama diinginkan. Tak peduli jika rakyat menjadi korban, yang penting untung pengusaha oligarkis dan penerimaan pajak tetap tinggi. Guna menutupi atau mengalihkan perhatian publik atas perubahan yang merugikan rakyat ini, pemerintah dan oligarki sengaja terus membesar-besarkan isu mafia. Sebaliknya, walau mafia tersebut ada, maka sangat absurd jika pemerintah sampai takluk oleh mafia!

Padahal sebagai produsen CPO terbesar dunia dan memiliki pabrik migor di dalam negeri, maka Indonesia seharusnya bisa mengatur volume dan harga khusus CPO untuk dalam negeri (domestic market obligation, DMO dan domestic price obligation, DPO). Dengan demikian, kepentingan migor rakyat secara keseluruhan terpenuhi dan inflasi akibat naiknya migor dapat dicegah. Ternyata yang dipilih kebijakan harga pasar yang merugikan rakyat!

Kerugian Rakyat

Total konsumsi migor nasional sekitar 5,78 miliar liter per tahun, yang terdiri dari kemasan premium 1,27 miliar liter atau 22%; kemasan sederhana 0,231 miliar liter atau 4%; curah rumah tangga 2,43 miliar liter atau 42%; dan curah industri 1,85 miliar liter atau 32%. Sedangkan 46,9% konsumen migor adalah rakyat berpendapatan Rp 400.000 – Rp 1 juta per bulan dan 44,7% konsumen berpendapatan Rp 1 juta – Rp 3 juta per bulan.

Secara keseluruhan konsumen migor rumah tangga adalah rakyat kelas menengah ke bawah yang mengkonsumsi sekitar 4,63 miliar liter migor. Dengan kebijakan pemerintah yang pro oligarki, dalam 6 bulan terakhir (hingga Maret 2022) diperkirakan mereka mengalami kerugian sekitar Rp 4,5 triliun. Jumlah ini bisa mencapai Rp 10 triliun akibat kebijakan harga yang dilepas ke pasar.

Penerimaan Negara

Selama dua tahun terkahir (Maret 2020 – Maret 2022) harga CPO telah naik dari Rp 7.920 per kg menjadi Rp 25.400 per kg. Sedangkan menurut Badan Pengelola Dana Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit (BPDPKS), volume ekspor CPO periode Juli 2015- Nov. 2021 adalah 18,49 – 40,77 juta ton, atau rata-rata ekspor 34,6 juta ton/tahun. Periode yang sama, rata-rata nilai ekspor (FOB) US$ 20,86 Miliar/tahun dan pungutan ekspor rata-rata Rp 19,8 triliun/ tahun.

Berdasarkan data di atas, maka selama 6 tahun (2015 – 2021) total nilai ekpsor sekitar US$ 120 miliar. Dari nilai ekpor ini, dengan asumsi biaya pokok produksi sekitar US$ 400/ton, maka total keuntungan yang diperoleh produsen sebelum dipotong pajak ekspor adalah: *US$ 120 miliar – (34,6 juta ton/tahun x 6 tahun x US$ 400/ton) = US$ 37 miliar.* Jika diasumsikan total pajak ekspor, pungutan BPDPKS dan berbagai potongan lain yang diperoleh negara adalah 50% total keuntungan, maka keuntungan bersih pengusaha sawit adalah 50% x US$ 37 miliar = US$ 18,5 miliar atau sekitar Rp 264 triliun. Apakah selama 6 tahun terakhir realisasi penerimaan negara mencapai nilai sekitar Rp 264 triliun dari ekspor CPO? Hal ini perlu dibuktikan. Audit harus dilakukan.

Mengacu pada Pasal 33 UUD 1945, maka sebagai pemilik lahan, porsi yang diterima negara seharusnya lebih besar dari 50% dari keuntungan bersih. Jika skema pajak progresif yang diterapkan tidak adil, maka negara tidak akan memperoleh penerimaan yang seharusnya. Apalagi jika terjadi praktik bernuansa moral hazard, maka negara sebagai pemilik lahan akhirnya akan memperoleh nilai yang jauh di bawah nilai yang seharusnya. Tampaknya hal inilah yang terjadi, sehingga untuk subsidi migor rakyat mealui APBN gagal dilakukan.

Menurut BPDPKS, dari Rp 120 triliun pungutan/iuran ekspor selama 6 tahun, sebesar Rp 91 triliun disalurkan untuk mensubsidi penyediaan biodisel. Sedangkan perusahan CPO penerima subsidi biodisel tersebut antara lain Wilmar Grup, Musim mas Grup, Apical Grup, Duta Palma Grup, Permata Hijau Grup dan Sinar Mas Grup. Tampaknya dana subsidi biodisel yang sudah captive ini hanya dinikmati segelintir pengusaha oligarkis, dan tidak ada sedikitpun yang dinikmati para pemilik kebun sawit rakyat (plasma).

*Dana Oligarkis*

Pajak dan iuran ekspor yang nilainya ratusan triliun Rp setiap tahun sangat besar untuk digunakan bagi kepentingan oligarki dan mengendalikan oknum-oknum penguasa guna menerbitkan aturan pro oligarki. Karena itu tak heran jika aturan harga liberal sesuai mekanisme pasar ditetapkan sepenuh hati oleh oligarki kekuasaan. Karena sejak awal memang prinsip harga mekanisme pasar tersebutlah yang dituju. Rakyat sengaja ditipu dengan modus pengalihan isu, tentang maraknya mafia seputar bisnis migor.

Padahal kebijakan apapun yang akan terapkan, termasuk penerapan DMO & DPO, HET tertinggi migor curah dan kemasan, atau subsidi terbatas hanya migor curah, maka penyelewengan dan mafia di berbagai sektor pasti terjadi. Namun berbagai penyelewengan dan distorsi tersebut akan bisa dicegah dan diatasi dengan berbagai langkah preventif dan penerapan sanksi, karena negara mempunyai seluruh instrumen dan aparat yang dibutuhkan untuk menerapkan dan mengamankan kebijakan tersebut.

Yang jadi masalah, pemerintah tidak bekerja komprehensif termasuk menggunakan semua instrumen yang dimiliki. Karena itu, maka terjadilah kezoliman terhadap sesama anak bangsa: ratusan juta rakyat, yakni 90% masyarakat konsumen migor kelas menengah ke bawah mengalami kerugian sekitar Rp 5 triliun hingga Rp 10 triliun, sedangkan para konglomerat sawit justru menikmati untung besar Rp 91 triliun hanya dari subsidi biodisel.

Kenikmatan para konglomerat sawit, pebisnis industri migor dan jaringan bisnis terintegrasi dari hulu hingga hilir semakin besar dengan adanya moral hazard, manipulasi pajak, transfer pricing, dll. Sehingga dengan besarnya keuntungan tersebut, dana yang diperoleh akan sangat berlebihan untuk mengendalikan para para oknum penguasa oligarkis membuat kebijakan sesuai keinginan. Mendag M. Lutfi mengakui Permendag No.11/2022 yang melepas harga migor sesuai harga internasional merupakan kebijakan yang terbit atas perintah Presiden Jokowi (17/3/2022).

Uraian di atas menjelaskan kebijakan CPO dan harga migor sangat memihak pengusaha sawit dan oligarki kekuasaan. Ratusan juta rakyat harus membayar puluhan triliun Rp lebih mahal untuk migor yang diproduksi dari lahan milik negara. Sementara pada saat yang sama para konglomerat sawit memperoleh subsidi dan untung besar dari lahan tersebut. Kebijakan ini jelas melanggar konstitusi, melecehkan Pancasila dan mengusik rasa keadilan. Sudah saatnya rakyat bangkit melawan rezim pro oligarki.

Jakarta, 22 Maret 2022.

Pewarta : Ibrahim Arsyad

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