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Respons Pengesahan UU HKPD, MIPI Gelar Webinar “Memahami Undang-Undang Perimbangan Keuangan Pusat dan Daerah”

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Jakarta – Undang-Undang Hubungan Keuangan Pemerintah Pusat dan Daerah (UU HKPD) yang baru disahkan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) pada Desember 2021 lalu menjadi bahan kajian Masyarakat Ilmu Pemerintahan Indonesia (MIPI). Sebagai respons atas disahkannya UU tersebut, MIPI lantas menggelar webinar bertajuk “Memahami Undang-Undang Perimbangan Keuangan Pusat dan Daerah”, Sabtu (22/1/2022).

Webinar yang dipandu oleh presenter salah satu stasiun TV nasional, Aprilia Putri, tersebut menghadirkan dua narasumber, yaitu Direktur Fasilitasi Dana Perimbangan dan Pinjaman Daerah (FDPPD) Direktorat Jenderal (Ditjen) Bina Keuangan Daerah (Keuda) Kementerian Dalam Negeri (Kemendagri) Marisi Parulian dan Guru Besar/Dekan Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik (FISIP) Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar Armin Arsyad.

Sekretaris Jenderal (Sekjen) MIPI Baharuddin Thahir dalam sambutannya mengatakan, Undang-Undang Perimbangan Keuangan Pusat dan Daerah berkaitan dengan Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 dan Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah.

Setelah 17 tahun, undang-undang tentang perimbangan keuangan atau UU HKPD menyesuaikan dengan dinamika dan konteks keadaan yang mengalami perubahan-perubahan. Dengan disahkannya undang-undang tersebut, maka dinamika perimbangan keuangan akan menjadi baru.

“Apalagi kita sangat paham bahwa penggunaan keuangan atau manajemen keuangan daerah dua tahun terakhir itu mengalami apa namanya, keterbatasan-keterbatasan,” katanya.

Ia menambahkan, lahirnya UU HKPD menimbulkan berbagai respons, mulai dari yang optimistis hingga yang khawatir. Selain itu, juga timbul semacam pertanyaan lanjutan soal bagaimana pola hubungan keuangan antara pusat dan daerah.

“Ruang-ruang fiskal seperti apa yang diserahkan pada daerah dalam konteks desentralisasi? Bagaimana otonomi daerah dalam perspektif pengelolaan keuangan?” tanyanya memancing diskusi lebih lanjut.

Sementara itu, sebagai narasumber, Direktur FDPPD Ditjen Bina Keuda Kemendagri Marisi Parulian menyampaikan, konsepsi dari lahirnya UU HKPD adalah dalam rangka mewujudkan desentralisasi fiskal yang adil, transparan, akuntabel, dan berkinerja. Kerangka pikir dari UU HKPD yaitu meningkatkan kapasitas fiskal daerah; meningkatkan kualitas belanja daerah agar lebih fokus dan optimal; dan harmonisasi kebijakan fiskal pusat-daerah.

“Diharapkan (dengan UU HKPD) ada perbaikan kualitas output dan outcome dalam pemberian layanan oleh pemerintah daerah. Dalam rangka menciptakan pemerataan pelayanan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat,” tuturnya.

Dampak dari UU HKPD tersebut, jelasnya, dapat memperkuat kapasitas pemerintah daerah dalam melaksanakan desentralisasi fiskalnya.

Di sisi lain, Armin Arsyad menjelaskan, dari penamaan saja undang-undang perimbangan keuangan pusat dan daerah menunjukkan dominasi pusat terhadap daerah cukup besar. Posisi tawar daerah terhadap pusat dilemahkan, karena dasar tuntutan daerah terhadap hak-hak keuangan daerah terhadap pemerintah pusat dikurangi bahkan diminimalkan.

“Tata kelola keuangan pusat dan daerah mengandung makna bahwa pusat mendominasi pengaturan keuangan daerah. Daerah harus tunduk dan patuh pada alokasi dana atau tranfer pusat ke daerah,” jelasnya.

Kondisi tersebut, menurutnya sangat berbahaya karena dapat memicu ketegangan antara pusat dan daerah. Timbulnya gerakan separatis di tahun 1950-an disebabkan karena pemerintah pusat dinilai terlalu sentralistis dalam menyelenggarakan pemerintahan.

“Sejarah telah mengajarkan bahwa sentralisme yang berlebihan dapat memicu gerakan otonomi daerah yang dapat mengarah pada gerakan separatisme, seperti DI/TII, (juga gerakan separatis) di Aceh, Sumatera Barat, Jawa Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, dan Sulawesi Utara,” kupasnya mengkritisi.

(Masyarakat Ilmu Pemerintahan Indonesia)

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